Karen E. Hodges

The University of British Columbia
Okanagan Campus


Selected Publications

Reviews and meta-analyses

Hutchen, J., L.A. Volkmann and K.E. Hodges. 2017.  Experimental designs for studying small mammal response to fire in North American conifer forests.  International Journal of Wildland Fire 26: 523-531. 

Keinath, D, D. Doak, K. E. Hodges, L. Prugh, W. Fagan, C. Sekercioglu, S. Buchart, and M. Kauffman. 2016.  A global analysis of species sensitivity to habitat disturbance. Global Ecology and Biogeography 26:115-127.

Prugh, L.R., K.E. Hodges, A.R.E. Sinclair, and J.S. Brashares. 2008. Effect of habitat area and isolation on fragmented animal populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:20770-20775.

Hodges, K.E. 2000. The ecology of snowshoe hares in northern boreal forests. pp. 117-162 in Ecology and Conservation of Lynx in the United States, editors L.F. Ruggiero, K.B. Aubry, S.W. Buskirk, G.M. Koehler, C.J. Krebs, K.S. McKelvey, and J.R. Squires.  University Press of Colorado, Boulder. 

Hodges, K.E. 2000. Ecology of snowshoe hares in southern boreal and montane forests.  pp. 163-206 in Ecology and Conservation of Lynx in the United States, editors L.F. Ruggiero, K.B. Aubry, S.W. Buskirk, G.M. Koehler, C.J. Krebs, K.S. McKelvey, and J.R. Squires.  University Press of Colorado, Boulder.

Wildfire and wildlife

Vanbianchi, C., M.A. Murphy, and K.E. Hodges.  2017. Canada lynx use of burned areas: conservation implications of changing fire regimes. Ecology and Evolution, doi 10.0002/ece3.2824

Cheng, E., K.E. Hodges, and L.S. Mills. 2015. Impacts of fire on snowshoe hares in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Fire Ecology 11:119-136. 

Hodges, K.E., L.S. Mills, and K.M. Murphy. 2009. Distribution and abundance of snowshoe hares in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Mammalogy 90: 870-878.


Conservation law and policy

Bird, S. and K.E. Hodges. 2017.  Critical habitat designation for Canadian listed species: slow, biased, and incomplete. Environmental Science and Policy, 71:1-8.

Prugh, L.R., A.R.E. Sinclair, K.E. Hodges, A.L. Jacob, and D.S. Wilcove. 2010. Reducing threats to species: threat reversibility and links to industry. Conservation Letters 3:267-276.

Hodges, K.E. and J. Elder. 2008. Critical habitat designation under the ESA: court-ordered designations use more criteria. Biological Conservation 141:2662-2668.

Hagen, A.N. and K.E. Hodges. 2006. Resolving critical habitat designation failures: can we reconcile law, policy, and biology? Conservation Biology 20:399-407.



Ecological terminology and communication

Hodges, K.E. 2014. Clarity in Ecology: terminological prescription is the wrong route. Bioscience 64:373

Hodges, K.E. 2008. Concepts not terms: the author responds. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 6:179.

Hodges, K.E.  2008. Defining the problem: ecological terminology and progress in ecology.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6: 35-42.



Bobcats and lynx

Gooliaff, T. and K.E. Hodges. 2018. Measuring agreement among experts in classifying camera images of similar species. Ecology and Evolution in press.

Vanbianchi, C., W.L. Gaines, M.A. Murphy, and K.E. Hodges. 2018.  Connectivity of fragmented landscapes for Canada lynx.  Ecology and Evolution in press.

Newbury, R.K. and K. E. Hodges. 2018.  Regional differences in winter diets of bobcats in their northern range. Ecology and Evolution in press.

Gooliaff, T. and K.E. Hodges. 2018. Historical distributions of bobcats and Canada lynx suggest no range shifts in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology in press.

Gooliaff, T., R.D. Weir, and K.E. Hodges. 2018. Estimating bobcat and Canada lynx distributions in British Columbia from provincial records and citizen science.  Journal of Wildlife Management 82:810-820.

Vanbianchi, C., M.A. Murphy, J. Pither, W. Gaines and K.E. Hodges. 2017.  Habitat selection by Canada lynx: making do in heavily fragmented landscapes.  Biodiversity and Conservation 26:3343-3361.



Snowshoe Hares

Cheng, E., K.E. Hodges, R. Sollman, and L.S. Mills. 2017. Genetic sampling for estimating density of common species. Ecology and Evolution doi:10.1002/ece3.3137

Hodges, K.E., J.A. Cunningham, and L.S. Mills. 2014. Avoiding and escaping predators: movement tortuosity of snowshoe hares in relation to risk of habitat. Ecoscience 21: 97-103.

Cheng, E., K.E. Hodges, J.M. Ferreira, P.C. Alves, and, L.S. Mills. 2014. Conservation implications of the evolutionary history and genetic diversity hotspots of the snowshoe hare. Molecular Ecology 23:2929-2942.

Hodges, K.E. 2012. Data-free speculation does not make for testable hypotheses: a reply to Ripple et al. Wildlife Society Bulletin 36:561-566.

Lewis, C.W., K.E. Hodges, G.M. Koehler and L.S. Mills. 2011. Influence of stand and landscape features on snowshoe hare abundance in fragmented forests. Journal of Mammalogy 92:561-567.

Tyson, R., S. Haines, and K.E. Hodges. 2010. Modelling the Canada lynx and snowshoe hare population cycle: the role of specialist predators. Theoretical Ecology 3:97-111. 

Hodges, K.E. and L.S. Mills. 2008. Designing fecal pellet surveys for snowshoe hares. Forest Ecology and Management 256:1918-1926.

Hodges, K.E., R. Boonstra, and C.J. Krebs. 2006. Overwinter mass loss of snowshoe hares in Yukon: starvation, stress, adaptation or artefact? Journal of Animal Ecology 75:1-13.

Hodges, K.E. and A.R.E. Sinclair. 2005. Browse site selection by snowshoe hares under risk of predation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 83: 280-292

Mills, L.S, P.G. Griffin, K.E. Hodges, K. McKelvey, L. Ruggiero, C. Henderson, and T. Ulizio. 2005. Pellet count indices compared to mark-recapture estimates for evaluating snowshoe hare density. Journal of Wildlife Management 69:1053-1062.

Hodges, K.E. and A.R.E. Sinclair. 2003. Does predation risk cause snowshoe hares to modify their diets? Canadian Journal of Zoology 81: 1973-1985.

Ruesink, J.L., K.E. Hodges, and C.J. Krebs. 2002. Mass-balance analyses of boreal forest population cycles: merging demographic and ecosystem approaches. Ecosystems 5: 138-158.  PDF

Hodges, K.E. 2001. Differential predation by coyote on snowshoe hares. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 1878-1884. PDF

Hodges, K.E., C.J. Krebs, D.S. Hik, C.I. Stefan, E.A. Gillis, and C.E. Doyle. 2001. Snowshoe hare demography. pp. 141-178 n Ecosystem Dynamics of the Boreal Forest: the Kluane Project, editors C.J. Krebs, S. Boutin, and R. Boonstra. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ruesink, J.L. and K.E. Hodges. 2001. Trophic mass balance models of the Kluane boreal forest ecosystem. pp. 463-490 in Ecosystem Dynamics of the Boreal Forest: the Kluane Project, editors C.J. Krebs, S. Boutin, and R. Boonstra. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Reptiles and amphibians

Tesche, M.and K.E. Hodges. 2015. Rethinking biogeographic patterns: high local variation in relation to latitudinal clines for a widely distributed species. Oecologia 179:139-149.

Tesche, M. and K.E. Hodges. 2015. Unreliable population inferences from common trapping practices for freshwater turtles. Global Ecology and Conservation 3:802-813.  (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351989415000372)

Williams, K., K.E. Hodges, and C.A. Bishop. 2015.  Hibernation and oviposition sites of Great Basin gophersnakes (Pituophis catenifer deserticola) near their northern range limit. Journal of Herpetology 49:207-216.

Williams, K., K.E. Hodges, and C.A. Bishop. Phenology and Demography of Great Basin gophersnakes near the northern range edge. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 9: 246-256.

Williams, K., K.E. Hodges, and C.A. Bishop.  2012. Small reserves around hibernation sites may not adequately protect mobile snakes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 90:304-312.


Grassland plants 

Gieselman, T.M., K.E. Hodges, and M. Vellend. 2013. Human-induced edges alter grassland community composition. Biological Conservation 158: 384–392.


Hodges, K.E. 2016.  Enhancing student engagement and learning via the optional Biodiversity Challenge.   Global Ecology and Conservation 5:100-107.



Last reviewed shim10/1/2018 9:26:12 AM